Drama

The theory of rasas still forms the aesthetic underpinning of all Indian classical dance and theatre, like Bharatanatyam, kathak, Kuchipudi, Odissi, Manipuri, Kudiyattam, Kathakali.

Rasas area unit created by bhavas: the gestures and facial expressions of the actors. Expressing Rasa in classical Indian dance kind is named as Rasa-abhinaya. The Nātyasāstra fastidiously delineates the bhavas wont to produce every rasa.

What is Drama?

Although the idea of rasa is key to several types of Indian art as well as dance, music, musical theatre, cinema and literature, the treatment, interpretation, usage and actual performance of a selected rasa differs greatly between totally different designs and colleges of abhinaya, and therefore the Brobdingnagian regional variations even at intervals one vogue.

Bharata Muni enunciated the eight Rasas within the Nātyasāstra, associate degree ancient work of dramatic theory, written throughout the amount between two hundred B.C. and two hundred AD. Each rasa, per Nātyasāstra, encompasses a presiding god and a particular color. There ar four pairs of rasas. as an example, Hāsya arises out of Sringara. The Aura of a frightened person is black, and therefore the aura of associate degree angry person is red. Bharata Muni established the subsequent.
Śngāram (शृङ्गारं) Love, Attractiveness. Presiding deity: Hindu deity. Colour:green.
Hāsyam (हास्यं) Laughter, Mirth, Comedy. Presiding deity: Ganapati. Colour: white.
Raudram (रौद्रं) Fury. Presiding deity: Hindu deity. Colour: red.
Kāruṇyam (कारुण्यं) Compassion, Tragedy. Presiding deity: Yama. Colour:dove colored.
Bībhatsam (बीभत्सं) Disgust, Aversion. Presiding deity: Shiva. Colour: blue
Bhayānakam (भयानकं) Horror, Terror. Presiding deity: Kala. Colour: black
Vīram (वीरं) Heroic mood. Presiding deity: Hindu deity. Colour:wheatish brown
Adbhutam (अद्भुतं) marvel, Amazement. Presiding deity: Brahma. Colour: yellow
Navarasa
As the tradition of alankara-shastra developed from the sixth through tenth centuries atomic number 58, a ninth rasa was contentiously supported by sure scholars; this rasa was solely wide accepted once AN extended philosophical and aesthetic theorisation by Abhinavagupta. after, the 9 rasas were accepted by the bulk of the Alankarikas, and therefore the expression Navarasa (the 9 rasas), may get vogue.
Śāntam Peace or tranquility. deity: Vishnu. Colour: white
In addition to the 9 Rasas, 2 a lot of appeared later (esp. in literature): further rasas:
Vātsalya (वात्सल्य) Parental Love
Bhakti (भक्ति) religious Devotion
However, the presiding deities, the colors and therefore the relationship between these further rasas haven't been mere.
Raudram rasa of the damaging fury of god Durga in Bharatanatyam
In the literary compositions, the feeling of devotion as a sense of adoration towards God was long thought-about solely a minor feeling work just for Stothras, however ineffective of being developed into a separate rasa because the sole theme of a full verse form or drama. within the tenth century, it absolutely was still troubled, and Aacharya Abhinavagupta mentions devotion in his comment on the Natya Shastra, as a very important accent sentiment of the Shanta Rasa, that he strove with nice effort to ascertain. However, even as Shantha slowly earned a state of grandness that it absolutely was thought-about the Rasa of Rasas, devotion conjointly before long began to loom giant and despite the lukewarmness of the nice run of Alankarikas, had the service of some distinguished advocates, as well as Tyagaraja. it's the Bhagavata that gave the nice impetus to the study of devotion from AN more and more aesthetic purpose of read.
A Rasa is that the developed relishable state of a permanent mood, that is termed Sthayi Bhava. This development towards a relishable state results by the interaction thereon of attendant emotional conditions that area unit referred to as Vibhavas, Anubhavas and Sanchari Bhavas. Vibhavas means that Karana or cause: it's of 2 sorts - Alambana, the non-public or human object and substrate, and Uddipana, the excitants. Anubhava, because the name signifies, means that the ensuants or effects following the increase of the feeling. Sanchari Bhavas area unit those crossing feelings that area unit auxiliary to a permanent mood. Eight a lot of emotional options area unit to bPerforming Arts In the Indian liberal arts, a rasa is AN feeling galvanized in AN audience by a entertainer. they're delineated by Bharata Muni within the Nātyasāstra, AN ancient work of dramatic theory. Rasas area unit created by bhavas: the gestures and facial expressions of the actors. Expressing Rasa in classical Indian dance kind is named as Rasa-abhinaya. The Nātyasāstra fastidiously delineates the bhavas wont to produce every rasa.
The theory of rasas still forms the aesthetic underpinning of all Indian classical dance and theatre, like Bharatanatyam, kathak, Kuchipudi, Odissi, Manipuri, Kudiyattam, Kathakali.
The expressions employed in Kudiyattam or Kathakali area unit extraordinarily exaggerated theatrical expressions. the alternative of this interpretation is Balasaraswathi's college of delicate and unostentatious abhinaya of the devadasis. there have been serious public debates once Balasaraswathi condemned Rukmini Devi's puritanistic interpretations and applications of Sringara rasa. The abhinaya of the Melattur form of abhinaya remains extraordinarily made in variations of the emotions, whereas the Pandanallur vogue expressions area unit a lot of restricted in scope.
Bhavas
The Natyasastra identifies eight rasas with eight corresponding Bhava (mood):
Rati (Love)
Hasya (Mirth)
Soka (Sorrow)
Krodha (Anger)
Utsaha (Energy)
Bhaya (Terror)
Jugupsa (Disgust)
Vismaya (Astonishment)
Influence on cinema
Rasa has been a very important influence on the cinema of Asian nation. The Rasa technique of performance is one in every of the elemental options that differentiate Indian cinema from that of the Western world. within the Rasa technique, sympathetic "emotions area unit sent by the entertainer and so felt by the audience," in distinction to the Western Stanislavski technique wherever the actor should become "a living, respiratory embodiment of a character" instead of "simply conveyance of title feeling." The rasa technique of performance is clearly apparent in Malayalam Cinema and internationally acclaimed parallel Bengali films directed by Satyajit Ray. The latter is indebted to the Rasa technique of classical Indo-Aryan drama, within the sense that the difficult ism of Rasa "centers preponderantly on feeling experienced not solely by the characters however conjointly sent in an exceedingly sure creative thanks to the spectator. The duality of this type of a rasa imbrication" shows within the Apu triad (1955–1959), that itself has had an outsized influence on world cinema.